Enterprise Value

What is Enterprise Value (EV)?

Enterprise Value (EV) is a measure of the total value of a company and its ability to generate future cash flows. It is a key metric used by investors to determine the financial strength of a company and the potential for investment. Generally, a higher EV suggests a more financially stable and potentially more profitable company.

EV is calculated by adding together the market value of the company's equity and the net debt it carries. This figure is then compared to the current value of the company's various operating and financial assets, such as inventory, buildings, and cash. The resulting difference is the Enterprise Value.

In addition to investors, EV is also used by financial analysts and managers to analyze and assess the performance and financial stability of companies. This helps them to make informed and data-driven decisions.

How to Calculate Enterprise Value (EV)?

The formula for calculating Enterprise Value (EV) is:

`EV = Market Capitalization + Total Debt – Cash and Cash Equivalents


  • Market Capitalization: The current market value of all outstanding shares of a company
  • Total Debt: All of the long-term and short-term debt of a company
  • Cash and Cash Equivalents: Cash and liquid investments that can be converted into cash quickly

Difference Between Enterprise Value and Market Capitalization

Market capitalization is the total value of a company as determined by the market value of its equity. It does not take into account any debt or liabilities that the company carries. While market cap is an important metric that is used to measure the overall value of a company, it does not take into account the full financial picture.

Enterprise Value, on the other hand, adds in the company's net debt which gives analysts and investors a better and more accurate idea of the company's financial health. Thus, EV is a more comprehensive metric than market cap.

Difference Between Enterprise Value and Equity Value

Equity Value, also known as Equity Market Capitalization, is a measure of the total value of a company's equity. It is calculated by multiplying the company's total number of outstanding shares with its current stock price.

EV, on the other hand, takes into account the company's debt and other liabilities. This creates a more comprehensive picture of the company's financial health and gives analysts and investors a better understanding of the company's core strength and ability to generate future cash flow. The difference between EV and Equity Value can be significant and should not be overlooked when considering an investment.

Why use Enterprise Value?

Financial analysts and investors use EV to get an idea of the company's overall worth, as well as the potential for future investment. It is an important metric for assessing the financial stability of a company and gives users a more complete picture of the company's overall financial situation. EV is also helpful for when making comparative analysis between competing companies in the same industry.

Ultimately, Enterprise Value provides a comprehensive measurement of the true worth of a company and how attractive it is as an investment option.

Valuation Multiple using Enterprise Value


The EV/EBITDA Multiple is a popular metric used to evaluate a company’s financial performance and compare its performance with that of other companies.

By dividing a company’s EV by its EBITDA, investors get an idea of a company’s value relative to its operating profits.

A higher EV/EBITDA Multiple indicates that the company is worth more relative to its pre-tax operating profits than other similar companies, and is usually seen as a sign of a significant amount of potential growth or a desirable set of assets. Conversely, a company with a lower EV/EBITDA Multiple may be seen as a more speculative investment.


The EV/Sales Multiple is a measure of the total value of a company relative to its sales revenue. By dividing a company’s EV by its sales, investors can get an idea of how much the company is worth relative to how much it is bringing in in revenue.

A higher EV/Sales Multiple can indicate that the company is bringing in more revenue relative to its value than other companies, which could be a sign of potential growth. Conversely, a lower EV/Sales Multiple may indicate that the company is undervalued relative to its sales and could be a sign of potential problems.

EV/Sales is useful when comparing companies making different amounts of revenue. For example, a company with an EV/Sales Multiple of 5x, which is higher than the industry average of 2x, is much more valuable relative to its sales than a company with an EV/Sales Multiple of 2x.

EV/EBIT Multiple

The EV/EBIT Multiple is a financial metric that measures a company’s Enterprise Value and its ability to generate earnings. Contrary to EV/EBITDA multiple that takes into account depreciation and amortization, EV/EBIT excludes them. It is useful when making comparisons between companies in the same sector but in different asset-intensive and tax-advantaged economic environments. For example, the EV/EBIT Multiple would be more useful in comparing a manufacturing company based in the United States to one based in Germany.

Limitations of Enterprise Value (EV)

Though Enterprise Value (EV) is a useful measure of the value of a company, it is not a perfect tool as there are a number of limitations to be taken into account.

Firstly, the formula for EV ignores the non-cash assets such as intangible assets, which can contribute significantly to a company’s value.

Additionally, the formula assumes that the company’s liabilities, assets, and cash equate to what they are currently worth. It does not take into account any potential future risks or rewards that may arise. Lastly, EV does not take into account any special treatment of debt associated with certain taxes or accounting regulations.

Ready to Become a Better Investor?

14-day Premium trial, 100% free after.

Try Premium for free for 14 days. Cancel anytime