Financial Ratio

What is a Financial Ratio?

A financial ratio is a quantitative tool used to analyze and evaluate the financial performance and health of a company.

It involves comparing different financial numbers and data to derive meaningful insights into various aspects of a company's operations, profitability, liquidity, solvency, and efficiency.

Financial ratios are essential for investors, creditors, and financial analysts as they provide valuable information for making informed decisions regarding investment, lending, and business analysis.

What are the most used financial ratios?

There are numerous financial ratios available for assessing different aspects of a company's financial position. Let's explore some of the most commonly used financial ratios:

PE Ratio (Price-to-Earnings Ratio)

The PE ratio (Price-to-Earnings Ratio) measures the valuation of a company's stock relative to its earnings. It is calculated by dividing the market price per share by the earnings per share (EPS). This ratio helps investors determine the perceived value of a stock and compare it to other companies in the same industry.

PEG Ratio (Price/Earnings to Growth Ratio)

The PEG ratio (Price/Earnings to Growth Ratio) combines the PE ratio with the company's projected earnings growth rate. It provides a more comprehensive assessment of a company's valuation by factoring in its growth prospects. A lower PEG ratio indicates a potentially undervalued stock.

Enterprise Value to EBITDA

The Enterprise Value to EBITDA ratio is commonly used to assess a company's overall value relative to its earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA). It helps evaluate a company's operating performance and its ability to generate profits.

Current Ratio

The current ratio is a liquidity ratio that measures a company's ability to pay its short-term obligations. It is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. A higher current ratio indicates a greater ability to cover short-term debts and suggests a more financially stable position.

Debt-to-Equity Ratio

The debt-to-equity ratio measures the proportion of debt and equity financing in a company's capital structure. It is calculated by dividing total debt by shareholders' equity. This ratio provides insights into a company's leverage and financial risk. A higher ratio indicates higher reliance on debt financing.

Return on Equity (ROE)

The Return on Equity (ROE) ratio measures the profitability of a company by assessing its ability to generate returns for its shareholders. It is calculated by dividing net income by shareholders' equity. ROE indicates how effectively a company utilizes shareholder investments to generate profits.

Return on Assets (ROA)

The Return on Assets (ROA) ratio measures a company's efficiency in generating profits from its total assets. It is calculated by dividing net income by total assets. ROA helps assess management's effectiveness in utilizing the company's assets to generate profits.

Operating Margin

The operating margin ratio represents the percentage of each dollar of revenue that remains as operating income after deducting operating expenses. It measures a company's profitability from its core operations. A higher operating margin indicates better cost control and efficiency.

Gross Margin

The gross margin ratio calculates the percentage of revenue that remains after deducting the cost of goods sold (COGS). It helps assess a company's ability to cover production costs and indicates the profitability of its products or services.

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